Suez Canal is an artificial waterways which connects Mediterranean sea and Red sea. It separates Africa and Asia.
It provides shortest maritime or sea route between Europe and Indian-pacific ocean lands.
Canal dimension: Length = 193 km, Depth = 24 m & Width = 205 m
It’s a highly busy shipping route (high maritime traffic). It’s unique geographical location makes it special for world as well as Egypt.
It starts from port said and terminates at suez city, port twifik with eight major curves.
Today, canal is owned and maintained by Suez Canal Authority (SCA) of Egypt.
History of suez canal is 4000 years old, but in modern era, Napolean Bonaparte took the credit for developing the canal at the end of 18th century. But due to wrong project and data, its development was not improved.
Later in 1854, French diplomat Ferdinand De Lesseps got permission by Egypt for building modern canal. He started the project with Suez Canal Company (SCC) in 1859. This company was owned by two sharer i.e. Egypt & France with equal share. Construction was started with the help of forced labours of Egypt.
After 10 years, in 1869 canal was built and opened for operation on 17th November 1869 and controlled by Suez Canal Company. But in 1875, british empire bought the share of Egypt and took the major control of the canal.
In 1956, Egyptian leader Nasser announced the nationalization of canal and transferred its authority to Suez Canal Authority (SCA) and on the same day, also closed the Strait of Tiran, which was very crucial for Israel trade. Due to these sudden revolutionary announcement, UK, France and Israel invaded Egypt and this led to famous Suez Crisis. Several ships were trapped in the canal during crisis. After interfering UN, they removed troops and crisis was ended with the Egypt control over Suez Canal.
Trade: Sea trade is the cheapest mode of trade and this canal plays an important role in global trade as more than 45 ships daily used to cross the canal. It reduced the Asia-Europe maritime route by 9600 km, which is a boost for world trade and economy. It saves distance, time and operational costs for the vessels.
Profit: For Egypt, this canal is a boon. It makes around 50 billion dollars annually. It’s a main revenue maker for the country and people also say it as a symbol of 2oth century independence.
Convention of Constantipole: According to this convention, canal may be used in the time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war without distinction of flag. By theory, it was open to all belligerents during world wars but the same didn’t happen.